Use this At A Glance Guide to learn the Virginia Supreme Court Rules related to Motion for Protective Order in Virginia Circuit Courts. For more detailed information, please see the SmartRules Deposition Notice Guide for the court where your action is pending.
The notice shall state the time and place for taking the deposition and the name and address of each person to be examined, if known, and, if the name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify him or the particular class or group to which he belongs. V.S.C.R. 4:5(b)(1).
If a subpoena duces tecum is to be served on the person to be examined, the designation of the materials to be produced as set forth in the subpoena shall be attached to or included in the notice. V.S.C.R. 4:5(b)(1).
Leave of court is not required for the taking of a deposition by plaintiff if the notice (A) states that the person to be examined is about to go out of the Commonwealth, or is about to go out of the United States, or is bound on a voyage to sea, and will be unavailable for examination unless his deposition is taken before expiration of the period for filing a responsive pleading under Rule 3:8, and (B) sets forth facts to support the statement. The plaintiff’s attorney shall sign the notice, and his signature constitutes a certification by him that to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief the statement and supporting facts are true.
If a party shows that when he was served with notice under this subdivision (b)(2) he was unable through the exercise of diligence to obtain counsel to represent him at the taking of the deposition, the deposition may not be used against him. V.S.C.R. 4:5(b)(2).
The notice to a party deponent may be accompanied by a request made in compliance with Rule 4:9 for the production of documents and tangible things at the taking of the deposition. The procedure of Rule 4:9 shall apply to the request. V.S.C.R. 4:5(b)(2).
A party may in his notice name as the deponent a public or private corporation or a partnership or association or governmental agency and designate with reasonable particularity the matters on which examination is requested. The organization so named shall designate one or more officers, directors, or managing agents, or other persons who consent to testify on its behalf, and may set forth, for each person designated, the matters on which he will testify. The persons so designated shall testify as to matters known or reasonably available to the organization. This subdivision (b)(6) does not preclude taking a deposition by any other procedure authorized in these Rules. V.S.C.R. 4:5(b)(6).
A deposition of a party, or any witness designated under Rule 4:5(b)(6) to testify on behalf of a party, shall be taken in the county or city in which suit is pending, in an adjacent county or city, at a place upon which the parties agree, or at a place that the court in such suit may, for good cause, designate. Good cause may include the expense or inconvenience of a non-resident party defendant appearing in one of the locations specified in this subsection. The restrictions as to parties set forth in this subdivision (a1)(i) shall not apply where no responsive pleading has been filed or an appearance otherwise made. V.S.C.R. 4:5(a1)(i).
Unless otherwise provided by the law of the jurisdiction where a non-party witness resides, a deposition of a non-party witness shall be taken in the county or city where the non-party witness resides, is employed, or has a principal place of business; at a place upon which the witness and the parties to the litigation agree; or at a place that the court may, for good cause, designate. V.S.C.R. 4:5(a1)(ii).
Depositions sought in Virginia pursuant to a subpoena issued under the authority of a foreign jurisdiction shall be subject to the provisions of the Uniform Interstate Depositions and Discovery Act, Virginia Code 8.01-412.8 through 8.01-412.15. V.S.C.R. 4:5(a1)(iv)(eff 7/1/09).
Within another state, or within a territory or insular possession subject to the dominion of the United States, or in a foreign country, depositions may be taken (1) on notice before a person authorized to administer oaths in the place in which the examination is held, either by the law thereof or, where applicable, the law of the United States, or (2) before a person appointed or commissioned by the court in which the action is pending, and such a person shall have the power by virtue of such appointment or commission to administer any necessary oath and take testimony, or (3) pursuant to a letter rogatory. A commission or letter rogatory shall be issued upon application and notice and on terms that are just and appropriate. It is not requisite to the issuance of a commission or a letter rogatory that the taking of the deposition in any other manner is impracticable or inconvenient. A notice or commission may designate the person before whom the deposition is to be taken either by name or descriptive title. A commission or letter rogatory may be addressed “To the Appropriate Authority in (here name the state, territory, or country).” Witnesses may be compelled to appear and testify at depositions taken outside this state by process issued and served in accordance with the law of the jurisdiction where the deposition is taken or, where applicable, the law of the United States. Upon motion, the courts of this State shall issue a commission or letter rogatory requesting the assistance of the courts or authorities of the foreign jurisdiction.
The attendance of witnesses may be compelled by subpoena. V.S.C.R. 4:5(a). For more information regarding subpoenas, See Fairfax County SmartRules guide: SUBPOENAS.
No commission is necessary to take a deposition whether within or without the Commonwealth of Virginia. V.S.C.R. 4:3(c).
If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition fails to attend and proceed therewith and another party attends in person or by attorney pursuant to the notice, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney’s fees. V.S.C.R. 4:5(g)(1).
If the party giving the notice of the taking of a deposition of a witness fails to serve a subpoena upon him and the witness because of such failure does not attend, and if another party attends in person or by attorney because he expects the deposition of that witness to be taken, the court may order the party giving the notice to pay to such other party the reasonable expenses incurred by him and his attorney in attending, including reasonable attorney’s fees. V.S.C.R. 4:5(g)(2).
Within the Commonwealth of Virginia depositions may be taken before any person authorized by law to administer oaths, and if certified by his hand may be received without proof of the signature to such certificate. V.S.C.R. 4:3(a).
In any other State of the United States or within any territory or insular possession subject to the dominion of the United States, depositions may be taken before any officer authorized to take depositions in the jurisdiction wherein the witness may be, or before any commissioner appointed by the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. V.S.C.R. 4:3(b).
In a foreign state or country depositions shall be taken (1) before any American minister plenipotentiary, charge d’affaires, secretary of embassy or legation, consul general, consul, vice-consul, or commercial agent of the United States in a foreign country, or any other representative of the United States therein, including commissioned officers of the armed services of the United States, or (2) before the mayor, or other magistrate of any city, town or corporation in such country, or any notary therein. V.S.C.R. 4:3(d).
Any person before whom a deposition is taken outside the Commonwealth of Virginia shall certify the same with his official seal annexed; and, if he have none, the genuineness of his signature shall be authenticated by some officer of the same state or country, under his official seal, except that no seal shall be required of a commissioned officer of the armed services of the United States, but his signature shall be authenticated by the commanding officer of the military installation or ship to which he is assigned. V.S.C.R. 4:3(e).
There shall be no limit on the number of witnesses whose depositions may be taken by a party except by order of the court for good cause shown. V.S.C.R. 4:6A.
Unless the court orders otherwise, a deposition may be taken by telephone, video conferencing, or teleconferencing. A deposition taken by telephone, video conferencing, or teleconferencing shall be taken before an appropriate officer in the locality where the deponent is present to answer questions propounded to him. V.S.C.R. 4:5(b)(7).
Depositions may be taken by audio-visual means including, but not limited to, videoconferencing and teleconferencing, as authorized by and when taken in compliance with law. V.S.C.R. 4:7A(a). Virginia Supreme Court Rule 4:7A sets forth the requirements for audio visual deposition recording. V.S.C.R. 4:7A.
The authorities cited in this At A Glance Guide are current as of the publication date. For authorities updated in real time, please see the SmartRules Guide for the litigation document you are drafting.